Hieroglyphics represent the official language of Pharaonic civilization, the first civilization known to man on the banks of the Nile Valley, where the science, arts and religious beliefs of ancient Egyptian on the walls and papyrus leaves to be the main role in the transfer of Pharaonic civilization and the discovery of its secrets and events and science and arts.
The hieroglyphic meaning of the word “sacred inscription” refers to the frequent use of pharaohs in temples, tombs, statues, and paintings. The ancient Egyptian inspired the hieroglyphic language Of the common assets, where the images of animals, flowers, house, and snakes to express the meanings of itself, and the first letters are only what these things express, as it was expressed by the House of the alphabet, and remained so with the succession of the ruling families.
Such as the Hieroglyphic line, the first brick in the construction of the ancient Egyptian language, consisting of four lines other than this line, namely Coptic, Hieratic and Demotic, each of which is punished by successive times, but because of the consistency and integration of the Hieroglyphic line, It became the official language for the codification of Egyptian civilization.
The Hieroglyphic language was discovered and spread when the Rosetta stone was discovered and decoded by Champollion, a member of the French campaign that invaded Egypt. However, the first attempts to decipher the hieroglyphic language were calculated for the Greeks when some of the paintings aroused the interest of their scientists.
About the hieroglyphic language says d. Emad Mahdi, member of the Egyptian Archaeologists Union: It is an official writing style of ancient Egypt, based on the drawings of environmental assets. The purpose of this use was to record events on the walls of temples and tombs, in order to keep the royal families from the ancient civilization. Their use over successive periods has been an ornamental art, so the hieroglyphics And the discovery of a number of paintings until the French campaign against Egypt, and the beginning of attempts to decipher Rosetta stone by one of its officers, called Champollion, which reached the meanings of many And the engraving of the house symbolizes the houses and temples, which contributed to the dissemination of the hieroglyphic language more, and to clarify the idea of being one of the lines of the ancient Egyptian language and not a stand-alone language , Add the Coptic font
“The hieroglyphs are composed of complex illustrations and alphabets, which are divided into three sections. The first is the monophonic symbols, meaning that they represent only a monogamous meaning, and are pronounced and written with only one letter. The second group is two-tone, They can be separated, while the third group is called the three-tone symbols, which are letters and inscriptions that symbolize three meanings. The hieroglyphic line contains additional signs besides these inscriptions and letters, but they are not pronounced but are used to identify the number, Others that only specify and confirm the meaning.
Origin of the Hieroglyphic
Origin of the Hieroglyphic word Out back the word hieroglyphics ( in English: Hieroglyph) to the Greek, which is divided into the word Hiro Hiero , which means sacred, and the word Glevah glyphics which means the inscription, or writings, word complete hieroglyphic means the sacred writings, or sacred inscription, Like most of the texts of old, does not The origin of the hieroglyphic characters is known, but there are several hypotheses about their origin, some believed to be a language derived from the rocky images created by the prehistoric fishing tribes that lived in the desert west of the Nile. Some of the ornaments were found on rock paintings on pottery vessels, Which belong to pre-family cultures Early in Egypt, this is particularly noticeable during the period of Naqada II 3500 – 3200 BC, where the vessels were buried in tombs, and in the tombs of the third Naqada period 3200-3000 BC. Hieroglyphics Archaeological finds indicate that Egyptian hieroglyphs and scriptures may be the earliest forms of writing. It is believed that the oldest evidence of the Egyptian hieroglyphic system is from about 3300 or 3200 BC. It was used by Egyptians during 3500 years and was more widespread during the 1700 years. Hieroglyphs Only a few Egyptians, including kings, priests; so because they were difficult to learn and time-consuming. Characteristics of Hieroglyphic Language The hieroglyphic system used in ancient Egypt contained about 700-800 basic symbols, called glyphs, where a large number of symbols in the last centuries of ancient Egyptian civilization grew because of the growing interest in writing religious texts. The Egyptians wrote these symbols in long lines of Left to right, and from top to bottom. They did not use punctuation, or spaces between symbols. Egyptian glyphs are divided into two groups:  Phonograms, which are graphical characters representing sounds. Ideograms, which are graphical characters representing objects or ideas.
In the course of its long history, the ancient Egyptian not only developed in terms of its grammar, but also developed the methods that were written according to the needs of the people and the requirements of their age, and simply can be compared to ancient Egyptian here in Arabic, which is written in several lines such as copying, The Egyptian also wrote four lines that evolved in successive eras, although none of them have passed on to the previous ones. These lines or written methods are (Hieroglyphic – Hieratic – Demotic – Coptic) and I will talk about them in some detail.
It is a common mistake for most people to refer to the ancient Egyptian language as “hieroglyphics”. This is a mistake since hieroglyphics is one of the ancient Egyptian lines and not a spoken language in any way. In any case, the Egyptians have referred to their language with various names such as Madhu Nathro “Which means” the words of the Gods “and” remount “which mean” the mouth of Egypt or the tongue of Egypt. ”
Egyptians used the hieroglyphic line as a basic and only platform for writing on temples and large installations such as mosques, pyramids, and cemeteries. In fact, the word “hieroglyphics” is the name used by the Greeks for this writing. It is derived from the term ἱερολλυὰικὰρράμματαHieroglyphikagrammata, It was engraved on the walls of the “holy” buildings. Therefore, the stones were the preferred material for writing with hieroglyphics. Their figurative symbols required special artistic skill to be engraved on the walls of large installations. But it was harder to draw using ink on paper so the Egyptians invented a simplified form of hieroglyphics known by the Egyptian linguists as “Hieroglyphs – Cursive Hieroglyphs” and is a manual form of hieroglyphics free of standard aesthetic standards that distinguish hieroglyphics on the giant monuments and Can
It is a technique based on the “ideograms” derived from the surrounding environment of the Egyptians. At the beginning it was a very simple method where the figurative sign represented the existence of the thing that it conceived, meaning that the symbol of the sun expresses the word sun and the symbol of the cat The word “cat” is thus expressed, but with the complexity of the language as a result of the complexity of human civilization began figurative symbols reflect the values of sound as well as its graphics significance and became symbols with the «Phonograms» signs have become indicative of a certain voice and symbols were divided into symbols that represent the sound of voice One such sign is a bird of punishment that expresses r (A), and double-sounding signs. One sign is the combination of two sounds together, such as a rabbit sign that says “wen” and “three-tone” The key to life »and she utters (Ankh).
Hieroglyphics in the ancient Egyptian period consisted of about 1000 marks. This number decreased in the classical Egyptian intermediate stage to about 700 marks. In the late Egyptian period, the number of marks increased to several thousand in the Ptolemaic and Roman times. The most important characteristic of hieroglyphic writing was that it was In contrast to contemporary writing systems in other civilizations, it was limited to the writing of the Egyptian language only, not as the writing of Mesopotamia, for example, written by Sumerian, Babylonian, Elamiyya and other languages. Perhaps the only exception is the Meroitic language KE Koch », which borrowed some of the hieroglyphs and Egyptian demotic to be two systems to write language that scientists are still suffering the difficulty in detecting ambiguity to now.
Of the characteristics of the word hieroglyphic it was composed of a symbol or several symbols represent the sum of the constituent voices of the word and add to the end of the word a symbol does not have the value of voice, called Egyptian scientists «Determinative» function to give a graphic indication of the meaning of the word, for example the word «Ra» which means both From the sun and the Sun God Ra is written by two signs, the first sign of the mouth, which carries the monolithic value of t and the second, the open palm sign, which carries the monophonic value of p. Is the custom, if the end of the word contains a dedicated icon of the sun disk if it is Me «sun» If either a custom carried the flag symbolizing the flags of the Gods above the temples, monuments or photographer of a man sitting cross-legged symbol of symbol, it means the God Ra and has also dedicated to hieratic and demotic moved, but less obvious than hieroglyphics.
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